Pakistan is a country with a rich cultural heritage, but it is also beset by a number of social issues that have hindered its progress. These issues have their roots in a number of different factors, including historical, cultural, economic, and political factors. In this article, we will take a look at some of the major social issues in Pakistan, their causes, and their impact on society.


Poverty is one of the most pressing social issues in Pakistan. According to the World Bank, around 24% of the population lives below the poverty line. This means that they are unable to afford even the most basic necessities of life, such as food, shelter, and healthcare. Poverty is particularly acute in rural areas, where access to education, healthcare, and other services is limited. The government has initiated several programs to address poverty, such as the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP), but their impact has been limited due to corruption, mismanagement, and inadequate funding.


Illiteracy is another major social issue in Pakistan. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Pakistan has a literacy rate of around 60%, which is well below the global average. Illiteracy is particularly acute among women, with a literacy rate of just 45%. This has led to a number of other social issues, such as poor healthcare, high infant mortality, and limited economic opportunities. The government has launched several initiatives to address illiteracy, such as the National Education Policy, but their impact has been limited due to poor implementation and a lack of funding.

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality is a major social issue in Pakistan. Women face a number of challenges, including limited access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities. They also face discrimination in the workplace, in the legal system, and in their communities. This has led to a number of other social issues, such as domestic violence, forced marriages, and honour killings. The government has taken some steps to address gender inequality, such as passing the Women’s Protection Bill and launching the Women’s Empowerment Package, but much more needs to be done to ensure gender equality.

Child Labor

Child labour is a major social issue in Pakistan, with an estimated 12.5 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 working in various industries. These children are often employed in hazardous and exploitative conditions, and they are denied access to education and other basic services. Child labour has a number of negative consequences, including physical and psychological harm, stunted growth and development, and limited economic opportunities in adulthood. The government has passed several laws to address child labour, such as the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act and the Employment of Children Act, but their enforcement has been weak.


Terrorism is a major social issue in Pakistan, with a number of terrorist groups operating in the country. These groups have carried out a number of deadly attacks, targeting civilians, military personnel, and government officials. Terrorism has a number of negative consequences, including loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and a sense of fear and insecurity among the population. The government has taken several steps to address terrorism, such as launching military operations in tribal areas and cracking down on extremist groups, but the problem remains a major challenge.


In conclusion, Pakistan is a country with a rich cultural heritage and diverse population, but it also faces many social challenges. From poverty and illiteracy to gender inequality and political instability, these issues have a significant impact on the lives of its citizens. However, it’s important to note that Pakistan has made progress in addressing these challenges over the years. There have been significant improvements in education, healthcare, and infrastructure, and the government is taking steps to promote social and economic development.

Furthermore, with the growth of technology and access to information, there is great potential for positive change in Pakistan. Information technology can play a significant role in promoting education, entrepreneurship, and social development. The country has already seen the rise of numerous startups and tech companies, and there is no doubt that the sector will continue to grow and create opportunities for young people in the coming years.

Overall, while Pakistan certainly has its fair share of social challenges, it’s important to remain optimistic and focus on the progress that has been made, as well as the potential for future growth and development. By working together and harnessing the power of technology, we can build a brighter future for all Pakistanis.


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